Types of Disabilities, PwD Act 2016 (List and Definition)
It refers to the condition of total blackness of vision with the inability of a person to distinguish darkness from bright light in either eye.
Low-vision means a condition where a person has any of the following conditions, namely:
- i. Visual acuity not exceeding 6/18 or less than 20/60 upto 3/60 or upto 10/200 (Snellen) in the better eye with best possible corrections.
- ii. Limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of less than 40 degree up to 10 degree.
3. Leprosy Cured persons:
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease. It mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes.
4. Hearing Impairment (deaf and hard of hearing):
Hearing impairment is a partial or total inability to hear. It is a disability which is sub-divided in two categories of deaf and hard of hearing.
- "Deaf" means persons having 70 dB hearing loss in speech frequencies in both ears.
- "Hard of Hearing" means person having 60 dB to 70 dB hearing loss in speech frequencies in both ears.
5. Locomotor Disability:
Locomotor Disability means problem in moving from one place to another - i.e. disability in legs. But, in general, it is taken as a disability related with bones, joints and muscles. It causes problems in person's movements (like walking, picking or holding things in hand etc.)
Dwarfism is a growth disorder characterized by shorter than average body height. Human beings with adult body height less than 4 feet 10 inches (147.32cm) are considered to be affected with dwarfism.
7. Intellectual Disability:
A person with an intellectual disability may have significant limitations in the skills needed to live and work in the community, including difficulties with communication, self-care, social skills, safety and self-direction.
8. Mental Illness:
Mental illness is a general term for a group of illnesses that affect the mind or brain. These illnesses, which include bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and personality disorders, affect the way a person thinks, feels and acts.
9. Autism Spectrum Disorder:
Autism is an umbrella description which includes Autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome and atypical autism. Autism affects the way information is taken in and stored in the brain. People with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions and other activities.
10. Cerebral Palsy:
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disabling physical condition in which muscle coordination is impaired due to damage to the brain. It occurs at or before child birth. Cerebral Palsy is not a progressive condition; meaning it does not get worse with time.
11. Muscular Dystrophy:
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is a group of neuromuscular genetic disorders that cause muscle weakness and overall loss of muscle mass. MD is a progressive condition; meaning that it gets worse with the passage of time.
12. Chronic Neurological conditions:
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease), Huntington's disease, neuromuscular disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy etc. disabling illnesses experienced by a significant proportion of the population. Individuals living with a chronic neurological condition may experience a wide variety of symptoms that require health care services.
13. Specific Learning Disabilities (Dyslexia):
Specific Learning Disabilities is a group of disabling conditions that hampers a person's ability to learn, listen, think, speak, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
Examples of Specific Learning Disabilities......
- Dyspraxia - The inability to motor plan, to make an appropriate body response.
- Dysgraphia - Difficulty with the act of writing both in the technical as well as the expressive sense. There may also be difficulty with spelling.
- Dyscalculia- Difficulty with calculations.
- Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)- Hyperactivity, distractibility and impulsivity
14. Multiple Sclerosis:
Multiple Sclerosis is a disabling disease that affects Central Nervous System (CNS). It inhibits the flow of information within the brain and various body parts. With time, MS can lead to the permanent damage to nerves.
- Tiredness, weakness, pain, tingling, and numbness, stiffness, muscle spasms, stiffness and weakness, difficulty walking or balancing, vertigo and dizziness, problems with thinking and memory, changes in vision and hearing, vision problems, problems with thinking, learning and planning, depression and anxiety, sexual problems, bladder problems, bowel problems, speech and swallowing difficulties are some of the symptoms of MS
15. Speech and Language disability:
Speech and language disability means a permanent disability arising out of conditions such as laryngectomy or aphasia affecting one or more components of speech and language due to organic or neurological causes.
Thalassemia is a genetically inherited blood disorder which is characterized by the production of less or abnormal hemoglobin. Thalassemia results in large numbers of red blood cells being destroyed, which leads to anemia. As a result of anemia, person affected with Thalassemia will have pale skin, fatigue and dark coloration of urine.
Hemophilia is a blood disorder characterized by the lack of blood clotting proteins. In the absence of these proteins, bleeding goes on for a longer time than normal. Hemophilia almost always occurs in males. Females are rarely affected with hemophilia.
18. Sickle Cell disease:
Sickle Cell Disease is a group of blood disorders that causes red blood cells (RBCs) to become sickle-shaped, misshapen and break down. It is a genetically transferred disease.
19. Multiple Disabilities including deaf-blindness:
Multiple Disabilities is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more different types of physical disabilities, two different mental disabilities, or a combination of physical and mental disabilities. Common examples of Multiple Disabilities are:
- Intellectual disability and blindness
- Mental retardation and orthopedic impairment
- Locomotor disability and speech impairment.
20. Acid Attack victim:
Acid Attack Survivors are the people (mostly women) who became the victim of the crime of acid throwing. These incidents often leave the victim with disfigured face and other body parts.
21. Parkinson's disease:
Parkinson's disease (PD) is Central Nervous System disorder which affects movement. PD is characterized by tremors and stiffness. It is a progressive disease, which means that it worsens with time.